How do dietary records change with day of diet diary/24hr recall?
Does the accuracy of recording change with exercise intensity?( people after 24hours diet intake seems like have a high mean of Kcal maybe becoz they can remember their meal more accurately) maybe people after 3 days diet intake may easily forgot or underestimate what have they eaten
i have compared some data WITH paired T – test to analysis doing high intensity exercise and energy intake (Kcal) for 3 days and energy intake for 24 hours. In the first data is for male and feamle than i analysis the data between male and female separately. MET more high(>3) that means more intense the exercise are. And in my data paried sample test there is a highlighted (sig) that means the closer the number is to 1 it is more likely a random event.(sig)The lower the value the more significant. If u dont understand the data plz contact me .
The report is divide into four parts
1. Background
Think about the nature of the question you specifically want to ask
heres some question example u can use
How do dietary records change with day of diet diary/24hr recall?
Does the accuracy of recording change with exercise intensity?( people after 24hours diet intake seems like have a high mean of Kcal maybe becoz they can remember their meal more accurately) maybe people after 3 days diet intake may easily forgot or underestimate what have they eaten
Does the accuracy of recording change with gender?
Are people who conduct the highest intensity exercise more likely to have a higher energy intake than those who do not
And u may mention that there is significant difference in physical activity and gender .
the Second part is Method
those are: diet diary(24 hours and 3 days)
we used a website called Nutritics for record our 24hrs and 3 days diet diary
statistics analysis
for stat i used paried t test and find it is siginificant or not and also use excel graph to find their mean and standard error
3. REsult
here u can post my paried t test result and my excel graph and excel stat
4. discussion
What do the data you have presented demonstrate?
What are the biological implications of your findings?
What are the “other” implications of your findings?
How would you take the study further?
What would you ask next?

Revised April 2004 1 Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Short Form, Version 2.0. April 2004 Introduction This document provides an revision to the outline for scoring the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) . This is available on the website There are many different ways to analyse physical activity data, but to-date there is no consensus on a ëcorrectí method for defining or describing levels of activity based on selfñreport surveys. The use of different scoring protocols makes it very difficult to compare within and between countries, even when the same instrument has been used. IPAQ is an instrument designed primarily for population surveillance of adults. It has been developed and tested for use in adults (age range of 15-69 years) and until further development and testing is undertaken the use of IPAQ with older and younger age groups is not recommended. IPAQ is being used also as an evaluation tool in some intervention studies, but the range of domains and types of activities included in IPAQ should be carefully noted before using it in this context. This document describes the April 2004 revision to the IPAQ short scoring protocol1 . These revisions are have been suggested by the IPAQ scientific group, to examine variation among countries in more detail2 . Given the broad range of domains of physical activity asked in IPAQ, new cutpoints need to be trialed and developed to express physical activity in the population. These cutpoints are preliminary, in the sense that they are not yet supported by epidemiological studies, which have typically used Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) to examine benefits or risks of being active. Hence, ì30 minutes of moderate intensity PA on most days of the weekî was evidence-based, using the estimates of risk (reduction) from these LTPA measures in numerous epidemiological studies. A new set of suggested cutpoints is based on work in the area of total physical activity, specifically total walking, where recommendations of at least 10,000 steps, and possibly 12,500 steps per day are considered ëhigh activeí (Tudor Locke reference). This equates to at least 2 hours of all forms of walking per day, which includes all settings and domains of activity, and could be a population goal for total HEPA (health-enhancing physical activity). With this background, new cutpoints are proposed for expressing physical activity levels in populations using generic physical activity measures such as IPAQ3 . 1 The first version of an IPAQ scoring protocol was in August 2003; this is a revised version, April 2004. This revised version does not change the continuous forms of reporting data, but does suggest a new category for describing the most active groups in populations. The changes from the August 2003 scoring protocol are indicated in this document. 2 Previous scoring algorithms returned high prevalence rates with limited variation among countries; hence a higher cutpoint is sought, as the IPAQ instrument measures total PA, including LTPA as well as incidental, occupational and transport related PA all in one question. This results in much higher prevalence estimates than measures of LTPA alone. 3 This results in changes to the categories used for levels of activity, and to the truncation rules [as greater than two hours per day may be required as usable data for walking and other physical activity behaviors]. 2 Characteristics of the IPAQ short-form instrument: 1) IPAQ assesses physical activity undertaken across a comprehensive set of domains including leisure time, domestic and gardening (yard) activities, work-related and transport-related activity; 2) The IPAQ short form asks about three specific types of activity undertaken in the three domains introduced above and sitting. The specific types of activity that are assessed are walking, moderate-intensity activities and vigorous intensity activities; frequency (measured in days per week) and duration (time per day) are collected separately for each specific type of activity. 3) The items were structured to provide separate scores on walking; moderate-intensity; and vigorous-intensity activity as well as a combined total score to describe overall level of activity. Computation of the total score requires summation of the duration (in minutes) and frequency (days) of walking, moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity activity; 4) Another measure of volume of activity can be computed by weighting each type of activity by its energy requirements defined in METS (METs are multiples of the resting metabolic rate) to yield a score in METñminutes. A MET-minute is computed by multiplying the MET score by the minutes performed. MET-minute scores are equivalent to kilocalories for a 60 kilogram person. Kilocalories may be computed from MET-minutes using the following equation: MET-min x (weight in kilograms/60 kilograms). The selected MET values were derived from work undertaken during the IPAQ Reliability Study undertaken in 2000-2001. Using the Ainsworth et al. Compendium (Med Sci Sports Med 2000) an average MET score was derived for each type of activity. For example; all types of walking were included and an average MET value for walking was created. The same procedure was undertaken for moderate-intensity activities and vigorous-intensity activities. These following values continue to be used for the analysis of IPAQ data: Walking = 3.3 METs, Moderate PA = 4.0 METs and Vigorous PA = 8.0 METs 4 . Analysis of IPAQ Both categorical and continuous indicators of physical activity are possible from the IPAQ short form. However, given the non-normal distribution of energy expenditure in many populations, the continuous indicator is presented as median minutes or median METñminutes rather than mean minutes or mean MET-minutes. Categorical score Regular participation is a key concept included in current public health guidelines for physical activity.5 Therefore, both the total volume and the number of day/sessions are included in the IPAQ analysis algorithms. There are three levels of physical activity suggested for classifying 4 Note that there is still some debate about whether 8 Mets for vigorous is sustainable, in occupational settings for several hours; we have no data on this, but it is likely to be less than that, maybe 7 METs or even less; however, for the moment, we suggest keeping with the compendium value of * METs. 5 Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL , Macera CA, Bouchard C et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of Amercian Medical Association 1995; 273(5):402-7. and U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, The Presidents’ Council on Physical Fitness and Sports: Atlanta, GA:USA. 1996. Revised April 2004 3 populations; these are the new proposed levels, which take account of the concept of total physical activity of all domains. The proposed levels are: [i] ëinactive [ii] ëminimally activeí6 [iii] ëHEPA activeí (health enhancing physical activity; a high active category). The criteria for these three levels are shown below. 1. Inactive (CATEGORY 1) This is the lowest level of physical activity. Those individuals who not meet criteria for Categories 2 or 3 are considered ëinsufficiently active’ [CATEGORY 1]. 2. Minimally Active (CATEGORY 2) The minimum pattern of activity to be classified as ësufficiently activeí is any one of the following 3 criteria: a) 3 or more days of vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes per day OR b) 5 or more days of moderate-intensity activity or walking of at least 30 minutes per day OR c) 5 or more days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous intensity activities achieving a minimum of at least 600 MET-min/week. Individuals meeting at least one of the above criteria would be defined as achieving the minimum recommended to be considered ëminimally active’ [CATEGORY 2]. This category is more than the minimum level of activity recommended for adults in current public health recommendations, but is not enough for ìtotal PAî when all domains are considered. IPAQ measures total physical activity whereas the recommendations are based on activity (usually leisure-time or recreational) over and above usual daily activities. 3. HEPA active (CATEGORY 3) A separate category labeled ëHEPA’ level, which is a more active category [CATEGORY 3] can be computed for people who exceed the minimum public health physical activity recommendations, and are accumulating enough activity for a healthy lifestyle. This is a useful indicator because it is known that higher levels of participation can provide greater health benefits, although there is no consensus on the exact amount of activity for maximal benefit. Also, in considering lifestyle physical activity, this is a total volume of being active which reflects a healthy lifestyle. It is at least 1.5 ñ 2 hours of ëbeing activeí throughout the day, which is more than the LTPA-based recommendations of 30 minutes7 . In the absence of any established criteria, the IPAQ scientific group proposes this new cutpoint, which equates to approximately at least 1.5 -2 hours of total activity per day, of at least moderateintensity activity. It is desirable to have a ëHEPAí activity category, because in some populations, a large proportion of the population may be classified as ìminimally activeí because the IPAQ instrument assess all domains of activity. Category 3 sets a higher threshold of activity and provides a useful mechanism to distinguish variation in sub-population groups. 6 “Minimally active” implies some physical activity but is not an optimal level of total HEPA. 7 As Tudor-Locke and others have indicated, there is a basal level of around 1 hour of activity just in activity of daily living, and an additional 0.5 – 1 hour of LTPA makes a healthy lifestyle amount of total PA – hence, these new cutpoints are still consistent with the general LTPA based public health recommendations of at least half an hour per day of additional activity or exercise. 4 The two criteria for classification as ëHEPA activeí are: a) vigorous-intensity activity on at least 3 days achieving a minimum of at least 1500 MET-minutes/week OR b) 7 or more days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous intensity activities achieving a minimum of at least 3000 MET-minutes/week8 Continuous score Data collected with IPAQ can be reported as a continuous measure and reported as median METminutes. Median values can be computed for walking (W), moderate-intensity activities (M), and vigorous-intensity activities (V) using the following formulas: MET values and Formula for computation of Met-minutes Walking MET-minutes/week = 3.3 * walking minutes * walking ëdaysí Moderate MET-minutes/week = 4.0 * moderate-intensity activity minutes * moderate days Vigorous MET-minutes/week = 8.0 * vigorous-intensity activity minutes * vigorous-intensity days A combined total physical activity MET-min/week can be computed as the sum of Walking + Moderate + Vigorous MET-min/week scores. The MET values used in the above formula were derived from the IPAQ validity and reliability study undertaken in 2000-2001 9 . A brief summary of the method is provided above (see page 1). As there are no established thresholds for presenting MET-minutes, the IPAQ Research Committee proposes that these data are reported as comparisons of median values and interquartile ranges for different populations. IPAQ Sitting Question The IPAQ sitting question is an additional indicator variable and is not included as part of any summary score of physical activity. Data on sitting should be reported as median values and interquartile range. To-date there are few data on sedentary (sitting) behaviors and no wellaccepted thresholds for data presented as categorical levels. Data Processing Rules In addition to a standardized approach to computing categorical and continuous measures of physical activity, it is necessary to undertake standard methods for the cleaning and treatment of IPAQ datasets. The use of different approaches and rules would introduce variability and reduce the comparability of data. There are no established rules for data cleaning and processing on physical activity. Thus, to allow more accurate comparisons across studies IPAQ has established and recommends the following guidelines: 1. Data cleaning • time should be converted from hours and minutes into minutes 8 Note: this replaces the previous IPAQ short form cutpoint of 1500 mets.mins/ week 9 Craig CL,Marshall A , Sjostrom M et al. International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12 country reliability and validity Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;August. Revised April 2004 5 • ensure that responses in ëminutesí were not entered in the ëhoursí column by mistake during self-completion or during data entry process, values of ë15í, ë30í, ë45í, ë60í and ë90í in the ëhoursí column should be converted to ë15í, ë30í, ë45í, ë60í and ë90í minutes, respectively, in the minutes column. • time should be converted to daily time [usually is reported as daily time, but a few cases will be reported as optional weekly time ñ eg. VWHRS, VWMINS ñ convert to daily time] • convert time to mets-mins [see above; days x daily time] • must have the number of days for the day variables; for the ëtimeí variables, either daily or weekly time is needed ñ if ëdonít knowí or ërefused ë or data are missing in walking, moderate or vigorous days or minutes, then that case is removed from analysis 2. Maximum Values for excluding outliers This rule is to exclude data which are unreasonably high; these data are to be considered outliers and thus are excluded from analysis. All Walking, Moderate and Vigorous time variables which total at least or greater than ë16 hoursí should be excluded from the analysis. The ëdaysí variables can take the range 0-7 days, or 8,9 (donít know or refused); values greater than 9 should not be allowed and those data excluded from analysis. 3. Truncation of data rules This rule is concerned with data truncation and attempts to normalize the distribution of levels of activity which are usually skewed in national or large population data sets. It is recommended that all Walking, Moderate and Vigorous time variables exceeding ë 4 hoursí or ë240 minutesí are truncated (that is re-coded) to be equal to ë240 minutesí in a new variable10. This rule permits a maximum of 28 hours of activity in a week to be reported for each category of physical activity. This rule requires further testing, but is an initial manner proposed for classifying these population data. When analysing IPAQ data and presenting the results in categorical variables, this rule has the important effect of preventing misclassification in the ëhigh activeí category. For example, an individual who reports walking for 2.5 hours every day and nothing else would be classified as ëHEPA activeí (reaching the threshold of 7 days, and = 3000 MET.mins. Similarly, someone who reported walking for 90 minutes on 5 days, and 4 hours (240 mins) of moderate activity on another day and 70 minutes of vigorous activity on another day, would also be coded as ëHEPA activeí because this pattern meets the ë7 dayî and ì3000 MET-minî criteria for ëHEPA activeí. 4. Minimum Values for Duration of Activity Only values of 10 or more minutes of activity will be included in the calculation of summary scores. The rationale being that the scientific evidence indicates that episodes or bouts of at least 10 minutes are required to achieve health benefits. Responses of less than 10 minutes [and their associated days] should be re-coded to ëzeroí. Summary of Data Processing Rules 1- 4 above Data management rules 2, 3, and 4 deal with first excluding outlier data, then secondly, recoding high values to ë4 hoursí, and finally describing minimum amounts of activity to be included in 10 Note that this is a different truncation rule to the earlier scoring protocol; we have previously used 2 hours as a truncation point for LTPA measures. This higher truncation point is proposed in order to allow people who walk for 2.5 hours per day and do nothing else to be categorized as ‘HEPA’ active; if data were truncated, these individuals would be recoded to 2 hours per day, and over 7 days, total 2772 MET.mins, due to the truncation rule. The new truncation rule allows 2.5 hours to be counted in full. The initial purpose of truncation was to normalize the distributions, and was based on expert judgments. It is now suggested that 4 hours / day be proposed as a truncation threshold for more inclusive ‘lifestyle PA measures’ such as IPAQ. 6 analyses. These rules will ensure that highly active people remain highly active, while decreasing the chances that less active individuals are coded as highly active. 5. Calculating Total Days for ‘minimally Active’ [category 2] and ‘HEPA Active’ [category 3] Presenting IPAQ data using categorical variables requires the total number of ëdaysí on which all physical activity was undertaken to be assessed. This is difficult because frequency in ëdaysí is asked separately for walking, moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity activity, thus allowing the total number of ëdaysí to range from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 21ídaysí per week. The IPAQ instrument does not record if different types of activity are undertaken on the same day. In calculating ‘minimal activity’, the primary requirement is to identify those individuals who undertake a combination of walking and/or moderate-intensity activity on at least ë5 daysí/week. Individuals who meet this criterion should be coded in a new variable called ìat least five days”. Below are two examples showing this coding in practice: i) an individual who reports ë2 days of moderateí and ë3 days of walkingí should be coded as a value indicating ìat least five days”; ii) an individual reporting ë2 days of vigorousí, ë2 days walkingí and ë2 days moderateí should be coded as a value to indicate ìat least five days” [even though the actual total is 6]. The original frequency of ëdaysí for each type of activity should remain in the data file for use in the other calculations. The same approach as described above is used to calculate total days for computing the ëHEPA active’ category. The primary requirement according to the stated criteria is to identify those individuals who undertake a combination of walking, moderate-intensity and or vigorous activity on at least 7 days/week. Individuals who meet this criterion should be coded in a value in a new variable to reflect “at least 7 daysî. Below are two examples showing this coding in practice: i) an individual who reports ë4 days of moderateí and ë3 days of walkingí should be coded as the new variable “at least 7 daysî. ii) an individual reporting ë3 days of vigorousí, ë3 days walkingí and ë3 days moderateí should be coded as “at least 7 daysî [even though the total adds to 9] . Summary: The algorithm(s) in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 to this document show how these rules work in an analysis plan, to develop the categories 1 [inactive], 2 [minimally], and 3 [HEPA] levels of activity. A short form [ëat a glanceí] and a diagram showing these analytic steps for ësufficient physical activityí and ëhigh activeí categories are shown as appendix 1 at the end of this document. IPAQ Research Committee April 2004 Revised April 2004 7 APPENDIX 1 At A Glance IPAQ Scoring Protocol (Short Versions) Categorical Score- three levels of physical activity are proposed 1. Inactive • No activity is reported OR • Some activity is reported but not enough to meet Categories 2 or 3. 2. Minimally Active Any one of the following 3 criteria • 3 or more days of vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes per day OR • 5 or more days of moderate-intensity activity or walking of at least 30 minutes per day OR • 5 or more days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous intensity activities achieving a minimum of at least 600 MET-min/week. 3. HEPA active Any one of the following 2 criteria • Vigorous-intensity activity on at least 3 days and accumulating at least 1500 METminutes/week OR • 7 or more days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous intensity activities achieving a minimum of at least 3000 MET-minutes/week Continuous Score Expressed as MET-min per week: MET level x minutes of activity x events per week Sample Calculation MET levels MET-min/week for 30 min episodes, 5 times/week Walking = 3.3 METs 3.3*30*5 = 495 MET-min/week Moderate Intensity = 4.0 METs 4.0*30*5 = 600 MET-min/week Vigorous Intensity = 8.0 METs 8.0*30*5 = 1,200 MET-min/week ___________________________ TOTAL = 2,295 MET-min/week Total MET-min/week = (Walk METs*min*days) + (Mod METs*min*days) + Vig METs*min*days) Please review the document “Guidelines for the data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form)” for more detailed description of IPAQ analysis and recommendations for data cleaning and processing []. Revised April 2004 1 START HERE Vigorous days [VDAY] =3 YES NO Vigorous time =20mins YES Minimally active CATEGORY 2 Total days of moderate [mDAY] PLUS walking [wDAY] = 5 YES NO Moderate time PLUS Walk time totals = 30mins per day YES NO Inactive CATEGORY 1 NO Days of Walking [WDAY] PLUS Moderateintensity [mDAY] PLUS Vigorous [VDAY] = 5 AND Sum of METmins = 600 NO YES Vigorous days [VDAY] =3 AND Vig METmins = 1500 YES HEPA ACTIVE CATEGORY 3 NO Days of Walking [WDAY] PLUS Moderate-intensity [mDAY] PLUS Vigorous [VDAY] = 7 AND Sum of METmins = 3000 YES NO APPENDIX 2: Flow chart algorithm for the analysis of IPAQ short form


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